All posts by Corey Sandler

Corey Sandler has been a storyteller all of this life. He worked as a newsman for Gannett Newspapers and later as a correspondent for The Associated Press before entering the worlds of magazine and book publishing. He has written more than 200 books on history, travel, sports, technology, and business. He currently is a destination and special interest lecturer for Silversea Cruises, one of the world's best luxury cruise lines. If you'd like to contact him, please send an e-mail to this address: corey[AT]sandlerbooks.com (Replace the [AT] with the @ symbol, please.)

21 June 2014: Tallinn, Estonia

A Soviet Flashback

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Tallinn is a spectacular old city in an old land that has seen its ups and downs. I wrote about its history and some of its culture in my post of 18 June 2014, which you can read in the blog page for that date.

On this visit, I went on an shore excursion run by an Estonian who helps visitors gain a sense of the mostly unhappy times when Estonia was a Soviet Socialist Republic–the years after World War II until the early 1990s.

The tour–in an antiquated Soviet bus–veered between moments of great poignancy and humor. We heard of family and friends jailed or deported, of lack of food and culture, and we learned quite a bit about the resiliant sense of humor of ethnic Estonians.

And we visited a most unusual cemetery: a graveyard of deposed statues of Soviet herors including Lenin, Stalin, and others.

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All photos by Corey Sandler, all rights reserved.

 

20 June 2014: Stockholm, Sweden. Goodbye and Hello

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Goodbye to old friends, leaving us here in Stockholm, and hello to new guests coming aboard today.

Stockholm is the largest city of Sweden, the capital, and the official residence of the Swedish monarch as well as the prime minister. We begin another cruise here, back for a loop of the Baltic: Tallinn, Saint Petersburg, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. Here’s our itinerary:[whohit]-Stockholm 20Jun-[/whohit]

Silversea Map 4414

Stockholm city was founded about 1250 and has been at the country’s military, political, economic, and cultural center for almost all of that time.

Greater Stockholm spreads across fourteen islands on the south-central east coast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren.

Stockholm’s core, the Old Town or Gamla Stan, was built on the central island beginning in the mid-13th century.

The city rose to prominence because of the trade with the Hanseatic League and links with Lübeck, Hamburg, Gdańsk, Visby, Reval (today’s Tallinn], and Riga.

In the past few years, the Royal Family has been busy with weddings and baby showers. But they need not worry about running out of space for the in-laws and the sisters, cousins, and aunts.

The Stockholm Palace is the official residence and major royal palace of the Swedish monarchy.

STOCKHOLM2 Palace STOCKHOLM1 Palace

The Royal Palace in the heart of Stockholm. Photos by Corey Sandler

The palace has 609 rooms and is one of the largest royal palaces in the world still in use. Alongside is the Riksdag, Sweden’s parliament.

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Out in the country is Drottningholm Palace, the primary residence of the royal family. Commoners can tour the public rooms; in my opinion the classy way to arrive is aboard a century-old steamer that runs from near City Hall. Photos by Corey Sandler

Stockholm has an extraordinary collection of museums, about one hundred of them.

The National Museum of Fine Arts is in central Stockholm across the harbor from the palace. The museum was founded in 1792, installed in its North Italian Renaissance style building in 1866.

The collection include about half a million drawings from the Middle Ages to 1900, plus porcelain items, paintings, sculptures, and modern art.

The Moderna museet, the Museum of Modern Art, on the island of Skeppsholmen in central Stockholm, opened in 1958. Its collection includes pieces by Henri Matisse, Salvador Dalí and Picasso, but not as many as there were when they were first put on display.

In 1993, life followed art. Burglars came through the roof at night, basically borrowing the technique laid out in the 1955 French movie Rififi. Six works by Picasso and two by Georges Braque were stolen. Only three of the Picassos have been recovered. On the plus side, an Henri Matisse work called “Le Jardin”, stolen in 1987 and worth about $1 million, was recovered in London and returned to Stockholm in 2013.

There’s also the Nordiska Museum, filled with cultural artifacts of Sweden.

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The main hall of the Nordiska Museum. Photo by Corey Sandler

In town in the History Museum, with a small but rich history reaching back millennia.

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The Historical Museum in Stockholm. Photo by Corey Sandler

But for my money—or yours—the must-see museum in Stockholm, and one of the great exhibitions anywhere in the world, is the Vasa Museum.

When your eyes adjust to the dimly lit hall you see before you the only nearly intact 17th century ship that has ever been salvaged and put on display.

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The extraordinary Vasa Museum. Photos by Corey Sandler

It is the 64-gun warship Vasa, which sank on her maiden voyage in 1628, nearly four hundred years ago. It was one of the largest and most heavily armed warships of her time, decorated with hundreds of sculptures, all of them painted in vivid colors.

Apparently they should have spent just a little bit more, on design and engineering. The ship was top-heavy and did not carry enough ballast down low near her keel.

On August 10, 1628, the ship sailed less than a nautical mile and then fell over and sank.

After then, Vasa was all but forgotten.

It was not until the late 1950s that the ship was found again, in a busy shipping lane just outside the Stockholm harbor. On April 24, 1961 she was brought to the surface, her hull mostly intact.

Thousands of artifacts and the remains of at least 15 people, along with articles of clothing, weapons, cannons, tools, coins, cutlery, food and drink, and six of the ten sails.

The Vasa Museum, constructed specifically for the ship, opened in 1990. Today, it is the most visited museum in Scandinavia.

One of our favorite places in Stockholm, not all that well-known and certainly not crowded, is Hallwyl House. This is the palatial home of Count and Countess Walther and Wilhelmina von Hallwyl, constructed in 1898 as a winter home for the immensely rich couple.

Last year, Stockholm added another museum to its trove of great treasures.

I didn’t say it was a great museum…but that’s just my opinion.

Abba The Museum opened on Djurgaarden island, next to the 17th-century Vasa museum and Skansen.

For better or for worse, the four members of Abba are back together, dressed like they never left the 1970s.

It appears that the group never threw anything away: costumes, instruments, ticket stubs, and hair gel.

STOCKHOLM9 Abba STOCKHOLM10

Not high culture, but you might want to take a chance on it if your goal is to be a dancing queen. Mama mia! Photos by Corey Sandler

All text and photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a photo please contact me.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Now available, the revised Second Edition of “Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession” by Corey Sandler, for the Amazon Kindle. You can read the book on a Kindle device, or in a Kindle App on your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Here’s where to order a copy for immediate delivery:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00IA9QTBM

Henry Hudson Dreams cover

Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession: The Tragic Legacy of the New World’s Least Understood Explorer  (Kindle Edition)

18 June 2014: Tallinn, Estonia

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Two Millennia of Ups and Downs

The penultimate port call on our superb cruise in the Baltic Sea was Tallinn. On this cruise we had just about everything: history, culture, art, music, great food, and good company. The only thing we lacked was a touch of summer: we finished our tour in near-wintry temperatures and winds.

Tallinn is one of the best preserved medieval towns in Europe, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[whohit]-Tallinn 18Jun-[/whohit]

Over the centuries Estonia has been assaulted, occupied, liberated, and reoccupied by: Crusaders, Danes, early Germans, Swedes, Russians, Lithuanians, the Soviets, Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union again, modern Russia, electronic pirates of the Internet, and tourists.

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The Lower Town of Tallinn on Toompea Hill. Photo by Corey Sandler

Estonia was on the front line during the Livonian War of 1558-1583.

Combatants included the armies of Ivan the Terrible of Russia, Denmark, and Poland. The winner was Sweden, but battles with Poland continued for decades.

The Swedish period in Estonian history was a time of great cultural advancement. The University of Tartu—still in existence—opened in 1632.

In the Great Northern War—the same conflict that led Peter the Great to found Saint Petersburg—Sweden fought Russia, Denmark, and Poland. Russia claimed Estonia in 1710, and for the next two centuries its people were powerless serfs to the Tsars.

The Russian empire brought its own customs, architecture, and the Russian Orthodox religion.

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The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in the upper town of Tallinn, a reminder of the Russian presence in old Estonia. Photo by Corey Sandler

Peter I began building the magnificent Kadriorg palace in 1718. Nicolo Michetti (who later designed Peterhof in Petersburg) created a Baroque version of an Italian villa for the Russian Emperor.

Kadriorg: Catherine’s Valley.

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Kadriorg in Tallinn; across the park is the elegant Swannery. Photos by Corey Sandler

It’s not always possible to start out with a palace; sometimes you need more modest accommodations during construction.

Peter bought a little cottage nearby. The house, with a kitchen and four rooms, is pretty much the way it was when Peter used it. His extra-tall chair dominates the tiny dining room.

Outside Kadriorg is Swan Lake. Some of the trees were supposed to be replanted in gardens in Saint Petersburg. After the death of Peter I, the horse chestnuts and the swans stayed in Kadriorg.

In the 19th Century came the National Awakening, spread by schools, literacy, books, and newspapers.

In Tartu in 1869, a song festival launched a movement to revive the Estonian national identity.

Tsar Alexander III, the repressive ruler who took the Russian throne in 1881 after the assassination of his father in Saint Petersburg sent troops to Estonia to enforce Russification.

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral is Tallinn’s largest and grandest cathedral. The richly decorated Orthodox church was built on Toompea Hill in 1900.

Taking advantage of the chaos in Russia caused by World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution, Estonia declared independence on February 24, 1918.

That did not last long. Within days, Germany took over. And then in November of the same year, Germany capitulated and the Soviets moved back in.

But the Estonians fought back while the Soviets tried to sort out their own internal conflicts.

In the Tartu Peace Treaty, signed February 2, 1920, Soviet Russia renounced claims to Estonia and Finland “for all time.” In 1921 the Republic of Estonia was accepted into the League of Nations. Social and political reforms were enacted and the country became a presence in the Baltic.

But as war again raged across Europe in 1939, Hitler and Stalin engineered the Molotov-Ribbentropp Pact, carving Eastern Europe into spheres of influence between Germany and the Soviet Union.

On June 16, 1940, Stalin accused the Baltic states of aggression and demanded the right to occupy them. Elections took place in July, with Soviet-approved candidates.

The peace between Hitler and Stalin ended abruptly on June 22, 1941 when Germany invaded Russia and its occupied states. Germany held Estonia for three years.

Soviet forces began air attacks in March of 1942, seriously damaging Tallinn in an attack two years later. By September 1944 the Germans retreated.

Estonia declared itself an independent Republic once again on September 18, but Soviet forces reached Tallinn four days later.

Few Estonians speak well of the Soviets, who exercised tight control over almost every aspect of life.

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The former KGB headquarters in Tallinn; a plaque out front tells passersby that this was at the core of the Soviet oppression. Photo by Corey Sandler

Over the coming decades, hundreds of thousands of ethnic Russians were sent to live in the Estonian territory: Russification once again.

A bit of perspective: the Estonians lost more people during the first years of the Soviet occupation than during the German occupation that followed.

And Estonia lost more Jews during the Soviet times than the German occupation. The Jews were doctors, lawyers, teachers; the Soviets considered them class enemies and they were deported, many to Siberia.

Estonia would not regain its independence for fifty years, a mostly unwilling member of the USSR until 1991.

On February 24, 1977 a small act of rebellion: the blue-black-white Estonian flag was briefly raised in Tartu to mark the 59th anniversary of the first Estonian Republic.

Ten years later, a series came a second National Awakening.

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The Song Festival Grounds in Tallinn. Photo by Corey Sandler

In June 1988, more than a hundred thousand people packed the Song Festival Grounds, across the harbor from the heart of Tallinn. A few months later came the first public demand for independence.

TALLINN6 Kumu

The very avante-gard Kumu museum, near Kadriorg, includes a room full of busts with a hidden speaker system; they murmur to each other. Photo by Corey Sandler

Tallinn 18June2014_DSC7092-2 Tallinn 18June2014_DSC7090

The very modern side of Tallinn, across from the old city. Photos by Corey Sandler

All text and photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a photo, please contact me.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Now available, the revised Second Edition of “Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession” by Corey Sandler, for the Amazon Kindle. You can read the book on a Kindle device, or in a Kindle App on your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Here’s where to order a copy for immediate delivery:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00IA9QTBM

Henry Hudson Dreams cover

Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession: The Tragic Legacy of the New World’s Least Understood Explorer  (Kindle Edition)

15-17 June 2014: Saint Petersburg, Russia

Cradle of Revolution, Capital of Culture

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Trick question: from the 9th century until the 19th century, which country was the big fish in the Baltic?

Not Russia.[whohit]-Petersburg 15Jun-[/whohit]

Not Germany/Prussia/Austria.

It was Sweden.

In 1240, Prince of Novgorod Alexander Yaroslavich led the Russians to victory over the Swedes in the Battle of the Neva.

He changed his name to Alexander Nevsky, meaning “of the Neva.”

The victory became symbolic of Russia’s fight for independence.

And Nevsky became a Saint of the Russian Orthodox Church.

A Photo Album of Saint Petersburg. Photos by Corey Sandler, June 15-17, 2014

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The view from our ship of the Church of the Dormition, one of the lesser-known beauties of Petersburg. It includes ancient icons and fabulous frescoes; it is only now emerging from decades of Soviet abuse includeing a period of time when it was used for an indoor ice skating rink.

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Saint Isaac’s Cathedral,  left, and Kazan Cathedral (modeled after Saint Paul’s at the Vatican, an unusual adaptation of a Roman Catholic design for a Russian Orthodox Church.)

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The newly reopened Central Naval Museum, moved from the former Stock Exchange to a handsomely rebuilt old structure on the other bank of the Neva, includes artifacts dating back to Peter the Great himself.

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The Singer Sewing Machine building on Nevsky Prospect, a handsome shopping mall, and one of the many canals in what some call the Venice of the North.

Below Saint Petersburg: The Metro

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The Saint Petersburg Metro was actuall begun during World War II, but not completed until the 1950s. Because of the many canals and rivers, it is one of the deepest Metro systems in the world, and its stations amongst the most ornate. Photos by Corey Sandler

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Constantine Palace was already a burned-out shell when the Germans occupied the suburbs of Petersburg. It was only rebuilt and reopened in 2003, as a personal project promoted by Vladimir Putin as a showcase for international summits including the G20 and the G8 when Russia was still welcome as a member. We went out to make a visit and saw Putin’s empty pride. All photos by Corey Sandler

ALEXANDER NEVSKY MONASTERY

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The grave of Piotr Tchaikovsky, upper left.  All photos by Corey Sandler

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Not on the usual tourist path: The Russian Museum, with a fabulous collection of homegrown art. At right, a work by Ilya Repin. Photos by Corey Sandler

In 1613, the second and final Russian imperial dynasty began when the Romanovs took power.

In 1682, Peter the Great was crowned at the age of ten in an arrangement brokered by Sophia, one of Tsar Alexei’s daughters from his first marriage.

Peter cared little for intrigues of court.

He was much more interested in playing with his toy soldiers, and later his real soldiers.

Peter’s goal was to open trade with Europe. At that time Russia’s only outlet to the sea was at Arkhangelsk on the cold White Sea.

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Menchikov Palace, along the River Neva across from the Hermitage. Photos by Corey Sandler

The Swedes held the Baltic Sea ports to the north. The Ottomans controlled the Black Sea to the south.

Peter visited Europe, sometimes in disguise, which is hard to imagine, since he stood about six-foot-eight-inches tall and sometimes included dwarves in his traveling court.

In 1695, Peter tried to capture Azov on the Black Sea from the Ottomans. After several attempts, he succeeded in 1698—but the port was useless because the Ottomans still controlled the exit from the Black Sea at Constantinople.

And so Peter launched the Northern War with Sweden in 1700.

On May 27, 1703 the Peter and Paul Fortress was begun on an island in the Neva. Several days later Peter built a wooden cabin, the first residence.

By 1712 Saint Petersburg was Russia’s capital.

After Peter the Great died in 1725, his wife Catherine briefly took the throne but not much power. Peter’s daughter Elizabeth became Empress in 1741, leaving most affairs of state to her advisors. She concentrated on art and architecture and Saint Petersburg blossomed.

Elizabeth ordered Peter’s estate at Peterhof remodeled, combining Italian and Muscovite Baroque styles. The Grand Palace and fountains at Peterhof were covered with gold and precious stones, a great expense for an impoverished nation.

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Yusupov Palace, along the Moika Canal, was owned by a fabulously rich noble–not a member of the royalty. It was here that Rasputin’s extended murder took place. The home includes a private theater, today used for small recitals. Photos by Corey Sandler

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Pavlovsk Palace out in the country, and the Stock Exchange (pre-Communist, of course) and the Rostral Columns on the Strelka across from the Hermitage. Photos by Corey Sandler

In 1744, princess Sophia Augusta Frederica arrived from the German principality of Anhalt-Zerbst (today’s Szczecin in Poland).

She came to meet her future husband, Grand Duke Piotr Fiodorovich. 14-year-old Sophia converted to Russian Orthodox and changed her name to Yekaterina.

They married in 1745; in 1762, her husband assumed the throne as Peter III.

Didn’t work out that well.

Six months into his reign, with Catherine’s consent or knowledge, he was overthrown by the Imperial Guard and killed.

That’s a cold marriage.

Empress Catherine II (Catherine the Great) set about turning Saint Petersburg into one of the grand cities of Europe. She decided to decorate the walls of the Winter Palace.

Thus was born the Hermitage, and the development of the handsome, European-oriented city of Saint Petersburg was well underway.

StP18 Ethnographic

Another less-visited gem: The Museum of Ethnography, begun by Nicholas II. It was completed after he was killed, but somehow managed to hold on to its fabulous collection through the Soviet years. Photo by Corey Sandler

Okay, that was just enough history.

In the Venice of the North there are something like 300 bridges, many of them works of art.

Our handsome, smaller ship Silver Whisper is able to sail almost right into town: along the Angliyskaya Nabererzhnaya, the English Embankment just downriver from The Hermitage.

Those monster cruise ships? They have to dock miles away, not quite in Finland but you just might be able to see Helsinki from their upper decks.

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Two means of transport: the Petersburg Metro, not quite as opulent as the Moscow subway but still an amazing system. At right, a display the Museum of Cosmonautics at the Peter and Paul Fortress. Photos by Corey Sandler

Here are some more photos from Saint Petersburg; some are ones quite familiar to visitors. Others are off the beaten track; most foreign visitors to Russia require a visa for any independent touring.

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The Big Three of Petersburg for most visitors: The Hermitage, the Church on Spilled Blood, and Catherine’s Palace. Photos by Corey Sandler

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Inside and outside the Hermitage. At times I have waited hours to be able to grab a shot without hundreds or thousands of tourists in the frame. Photos by Corey Sandler

StP14 Isaac StP15 Isaac

Outside and on top of Saint Isaac’s. The shaky climb is worth the effort but not for those with fear of heights. Photos by Corey Sandler

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Within Peter and Paul Fortress. Photos by Corey Sandler

 

All text and photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a copy of a photo, please contact me.

 

14 June 2014: Helsinki, Finland

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Both Sides Against the Middle

Helsinki is a thoroughly modern Scandinavian city with a typically complex story for this part of the world.[whohit]-Helsinki 13Jun-[/whohit]

Helsinki is the capital and largest city of Finland, but its roots reach back to Sweden, interrupted by war and occupation by Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union.

Finland, roughly the size of Germany, is on the Gulf of Finland, just 300 kilometers or 186 miles from Saint Petersburg. Tallinn, Estonia is 80 kilometers or 50 miles across the Baltic Sea.

Modern Helsinki is Finland’s center of politics, finance, technology, and education with eight major universities.

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Scenes of Helsinki: The Helsinki Cathedral and the Ateneum. Photos by Corey Sandler

Helsingfors (Helsinge Rapids) was founded by King Gustav I of Sweden in 1550. It was intended as a trading rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval (today’s Tallinn in Estonia.)

In 1703 Peter the Great founded his new Russian capital, Saint Petersburg, at the end of the Gulf of Finland.

From the start, Peter was determined that Russia be a great maritime power—as a young man he traveled through Europe to learn about shipbuilding and tactics, even working for a while as a tradesman.

Once Peter had his capital, he began to expand his reach toward the Baltic and his neighbor to the west: the Finnish region of Sweden.

In the Gulf of Finland he built the fortified naval base of Kronstadt.

This didn’t merely upset Sweden. Other European states were also concerned, especially France, with which Sweden had a military alliance.

In 1757 the Swedes decided to fortify the Russian frontier, and to establish a naval base at Helsinki as a counter to Kronstadt.

Work began on the islands off Helsinki in 1748. It became the great naval fortress of Sveaborg.

Svea as in Mother Svea, the national emblem of Sweden. Borg as in fortress.

Helsinki Sveaborg1

Sveaborg, now Suomenlinna Fortress in the harbor of Helsinki. Photos by Corey Sandler

In a brief diplomatic somersault during the Napoleonic Wars, France’s Emperor Napoleon agreed to allow Czar Alexander I to push Sweden out of Finland in 1808.

The Russians easily took Helsinki and began bombarding the fortress. To the consternation of the Swedes, the commander of Sveaborg negotiated a cease-fire and surrendered almost 7,000 men to the Russians.

He may have realized he was in a no-win situation. He may have sought to save civilian lives in Helsinki. And he may have fallen victim to psychological warfare by the Russians who surrounded and isolated Sveaborg.

In the 1809 Treaty of Fredrikshamn, Finland was ceded from Sweden and became an autonomous grand duchy within the Russian Empire.

Although the Finns never particularly liked the Swedes, they were even less happy with the Russians.

But the Russians helped develop Helsinki into a major city. The Russians expanded Sveaborg with more barracks, fortifications, and naval facilities.

During the build-up to World War I, the fortress was beefed up again as part of the outer defenses of the Russian capital of Saint Petersburg.

The Russians rebuilt much of the heart of Helsinki in neoclassical style, resembling Saint Petersburg.

Just above our ship on the hillside is the Uspenski Cathedral, one of the last obvious vestiges of Imperial Russian occupation of Finland. Completed in 1868, it was modeled after a 16th century church near Moscow.

Helsinki Uspenski1

Uspenski Cathedral in Helsinki. Photo by Corey Sandler

But in 1917, as Czarist Russia was devolving in Revolution, Finland won its independence.

Among the first acts by the Finns was to drop the Swedish name Sveaborg in favor of Suomenlinna, which means Finland’s Castle.

The Finns headed straight for a small Russian Orthodox Church on the island. They took down the onion domes, converting its tower into a lighthouse.

Today Suomenlinna is no longer a fortress. Instead it is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Helsinki, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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More scenes of Helsinki: the market. Photos by Corey Sandler

Helsinki Natl Museum Helsinki NtlMus2 Helsinki Kiasma

The old-fashioned National Museum and the very, very modern Kiasma art museum. Photos by Corey Sandler

After World War I, the relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense.

Some Finns held a dream of “Greater Finland” which included the Soviet-controlled portion of Karelia.

That did not sit well with the Soviets; the 1930s Finnish border was only 20 miles away from Leningrad—today’s Saint Petersburg.

In addition, the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland—the sea approach to Petersburg—was Finnish.

Up north, the entrance to the vital port of Murmansk was also flanked by Finnish territory.

And so, the military history of Finland during World War II is mostly shades of gray.

I’ll leave it to you to decide whether Finland was on the side of the angels at any point.

Between 1939 and 1945, Finland fought three wars: the Winter War alone against the Soviet Union, the Continuation War in association with Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, and finally the Lapland War at the instigation of the Soviet Union against Germany.

So, they fought against the Soviet Union before they fought with them.

And they fought with Nazi Germany before they fought against them.

All text and photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a copy of a photo, please contact me.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Now available, the revised Second Edition of “Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession” by Corey Sandler, for the Amazon Kindle. You can read the book on a Kindle device, or in a Kindle App on your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Here’s where to order a copy for immediate delivery:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00IA9QTBM

Henry Hudson Dreams cover

Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession: The Tragic Legacy of the New World’s Least Understood Explorer  (Kindle Edition)

12 June 2014: Riga, Latvia

Reborn Free

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

I was once 22 years old.

And my wife and I raised a couple of children from birth to adulthood—including a not-so-wonderful period of time in which they were 22 years old.

You remember the time, right?

Latvia and Estonia each emerged from behind the Iron Curtain 22 years ago.

Both countries are by no means newborns; their history goes back thousands of years.[whohit]-Riga 12Jun-[/whohit]

They were under the thumb of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union for the second half of the 20th century.

And now they are in their twenties: full of energy, embued with talent, prone to momentary flashes of brilliance and great, clumsy stumbles.

A Photo Album: Riga, Latvia 12 June 2014

RIGA Street

On the street in Riga. Photo by Corey Sandler

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All photos by Corey Sandler, copyright 2014. All rights reserved.

This year, 2014, Riga takes the spotlight as the European Capital of Culture.

We’re coming in summer, but Merry Christmas nevertheless. Riga claims that the idea of a decorated Christmas tree began right here. There are documents from the House of Blackheads reporting a tree was raised in 1510.

It wasn’t an evergreen with tinsel and LED lights. It was a pyramid-shaped wooden structure, decorated with dried flowers, fruit and vegetables, and straw toys.

RIGA Christmas Tree

A Christmas Tree in downtown Riga. Photo by Corey Sandler

Then, some say, the tree was paraded around the meeting hall before being set on fire to signify the end of the old year and the beginning of the new.

Actually, the Blackheads were active in Riga and in Estonia and both places claim bragging rights.

Russian and Soviet Shadows

In the 1880s, under Czar Alexander III, a period of Russification began.

When the Soviet Union swept in at the start of World War II and then again in the Cold War years from 1945 to 1991, there were more intense efforts to Russify Latvia.

RIGA Soviet War Monument

A Soviet World War II Memorial in Latvia. Photo by Corey Sandler

Waves of Russian immigrants came from Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia itself. In 1935, ethnic Latvians made up about 80 percent of the population; today, about half.

With independence in 1991, Latvian was made the official language. There is, though, bilingual education in primary schools for ethnic minorities including Russian, Yiddish, Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Estonian, and Roma.

At the same time, they are trying to remove foreign words, mostly Russian and English terms.

Despite two world wars and German and Soviet occupation, Riga has managed to retain a colorful and handsome central core, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Rebuilding some of its greatest churches and buildings has only been completed in the last decade. They range in design from Gothic to Modernist.

The city is particularly notable for its extensive Jugendstil or German Art Nouveau architecture. Many of the more spectacular structures were designed by Mikhail Eisenstein, a Russian architect who worked in Riga early in the 20th century.

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Some of the amazing Jugenstil or German Art Nouveau architecture in downtown Riga. Photos by Corey Sandler

 All text and photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a photo, please contact me.

 

11 June 2014: Klaipeda, Lithuania

The Best Port in the Country

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Klaipeda is the largest, most successful, most impressive port in the Republic of Lithuania.[whohit]-Klaipeda 11Jun-[/whohit]

It is also the only port in Lithuania. I’m just saying.

The port and city have been through many hands across its history, spending most of its modern life as part of Germany, then emerging from Soviet control as part of free Lithuania.

A Klaipeda Photo Album, June 11, 2014

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All photos by Corey Sandler. All rights reserved, copyright 2014

During the night, sailing northeast from Gdansk, Poland we passed along the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad, the former German city of Königsberg. It’s a disconnected piece of Russia, not much in the news although its Baltic neighbors–Ukraine on their minds—eye it warily.

Modern Lithuania borders Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Kaliningrad to the southwest.

By the end of the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was by some measures the largest country in Europe.

It extended from the Baltic Sea at Klaipeda to the Black Sea at Odessa, encompassing Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia.

In geopolitical terms, Lithuania has always been betwixt and between, one of those countries that has both benefited and been severely punished for its location.

It stands between Germany and Russia. It once had ports on both the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea.

For those reasons and others, war has ground through Lithuania in all directions.

For much of its history, Klaipeda was known by its Germanic name of Memel.

After the unification of the German Empire in 1871, Memel became Germany’s most northerly city.

It began to lose out to the nearby port of Königsberg, the capital of the province, which at the time was capable of handling larger vessels.

After World War II, it remained in Soviet hands.

In March 1990, a year before the formal break-up of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Soviet republic to declare independence.

All photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. All rights reserved. If you would like to purchase a copy, please contact me.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Now available, the revised Second Edition of “Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession” by Corey Sandler, for the Amazon Kindle. You can read the book on a Kindle device, or in a Kindle App on your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Here’s where to order a copy for immediate delivery:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00IA9QTBM

Henry Hudson Dreams cover

Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession: The Tragic Legacy of the New World’s Least Understood Explorer  (Kindle Edition)

10 June 2014: A New Journey Begins. Gdansk, Poland

Gdansk, Poland

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

A Beginning and an End

Welcome aboard. Our cruise aboard Silversea Silver Whisper began yesterday in Copenhagen.

We’re set for a circle of the Baltic, from Denmark to Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Finland, Russia, Estonia, and Sweden.

Silversea Map 4413

We begin our cruise in the Baltic in Gdansk, a place of great history for Poland, two World Wars, and the Soviet Union.[whohit]-Gdansk 10June-[/whohit]

Gdansk may have seen the first military action of World War II, and also the place where the first successful opposition to Soviet rule arose four decades later.

In the 20th century, a beginning and an end.

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Scenes from the old city of Gdansk on a glorious June day. Photos by Corey Sandler

Gdańsk, Gdynia, and the spa town of Sopot make up the Trójmiasto, the Tri-cities.

Gdańsk is at the mouth of the Motława River, a branch of the Vistula or Wisła, Poland’s longest river.

The Wisła flows 650 miles or 1,400 kilometers through Kraków and Warsaw before reaching the Bay of Gdańsk.

Norwegian Vikings sailed up the Vistula, and it was later a major trade route from the Polish-Lithuania confederation to Western Europe.

Sopot is considered Poland’s premier seaside resort, which might seem faint praise since the country was cut off from the sea for decades at a time. But it is a lively place today.

Sopot became part of the Free City of Gdańsk under the Treaty of Versailles and the Grand Hotel (now the Sofitel Grand Sopot Hotel) was a popular casino and spa in a golden age between the wars.

GDANSK Grand Hotel Sopot

The Grand Hotel Sopot. Photo by Corey Sandler

The First Shots of World War II

At 4:45am on September 1, 1939, the elderly German battleship Schleswig-Holstein, supposedly on a goodwill visit opened fire on the Polish garrison at Westerplatte in the port of Danzig, today’s Gdansk.

On September 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany. Within two weeks Warsaw and most of western Poland had fallen to German forces.

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Silver Whisper sailed into Gdansk and docked at Westerplatte, within a few hundred feet of where the first military action of World War II took place in 1939. Today a monument marks the unhappy moment. Photos by Corey Sandler

Under terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact which carved up the region to the satisfaction of Hitler and Stalin, the Germans were met by Soviets coming west. The Germans displaced most ethnic Poles, sending millions of Jews and others to concentration or extermination camps.

About 35 miles east of Gdansk is the Stutthof concentration camp.The origins of the camp date back to the prewar Free City of Danzig. Nazi functionaries made plans for a camp to detain and eventually exterminate undesirable elements. It opened in August 1939, before the German invasion.

Under German occupation, Poland was dotted with concentration and extermination camps, about 457 in total. About 5 million Polish citizens went through the camps. About 1.1 million were murdered at Auschwitz, about 870,000 at Treblinka, 434,000 at Belzec, and 200,000 at Sobibor.

When the Soviets led the charge back toward Germany in 1945, what little was left in much of Poland was destroyed by infantry and aerial bombardment. The Soviets killed or displaced millions more.

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Scenes of Gdansk, a handsome city rebuilt from the rubble of German, then Soviet assaults in World War II. Photos by Corey Sandler

Modern Gdansk

Today Gdansk is a handsome and bustling city. It appears centuries old, but most of what greets visitors has been rebuilt since World War II.

So, World War II essentially started in Gdansk, and there followed four decades of misery as a Soviet puppet state. But the beginning of the end of the Soviet Union also has some of its roots here.

The Solidarity workers’ union rose at the Gdansk and Gdynia shipyards.

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The Gdansk Shipyard and monuments to Solidarity. Photos by Corey Sandler

Some of the people involved in the events were very well-known:

Pope John Paul II, born Carol Karol Wojtyła in Wadowice near Krakow.

Lech Wałęsa, born in 1943, was an electrician. Soon after joining the Lenin Shipyards in Gdańsk, he became a leader of the dissident trade-union there.

He was harassed by the Communist authorities, fired in 1976, and arrested several times. In August 1980, he was instrumental in political negotiations that unexpectedly led to an agreement between striking workers and the government.

The United States and other western powers and groups provided aid and applied pressure, emboldening the Solidarity trade union.

In the United States, some unusual overt and covert alliances formed including American union leaders and incoming president Ronald Reagan, unnatural allies.

Lech Walesa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983. By 1989, Brezhnev was dead and the Soviet Union teetered on collapse.

In that year, the Polish government allowed part of the Parliament to be freely elected, and candidates allied with Solidarity won nearly as many seats as the ruling Communist party.

In November 1990, Lech Walesa won Poland’s first direct Presidential election.

All photos and text copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a photo, please contact me.

 

3-4 May 2014: Constanţa, Romania and Istanbul, Turkey

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Our politically adjusted tour of the Black Sea has come to an end. Because of bad weather in Nesebar, Bulgaria we are headed now for Istanbul.

I want to wish all of our guests—old friends and new—safe travels. I will be going home for a brief vacation, returning in June on our sister ship Silver Whisper in the Baltic.

We enjoyed a spring-like day in Constanţa, Romania. I went with a group of guests to an unusual part of Europe: the Danube River Delta, a thicket of willow trees and other flora. We were escorted by a flotilla of frogs alongside and flocks of birds (eagles, herons, hawks, and more) above.[whohit]-Constanta and Istanbul 3-4May-[/whohit]

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In the Danube River Delta of Romania. Photos by Corey Sandler

The delta reminded me a bit of river deltas in Costa Rica. Without the crocodiles and caimans.

Romania—like Bulgaria and Turkey— straddles the crossroads of history. Its past, and to a great extent its future, hinges on the land and sea bridge between Europe and Asia.

Romania is roughly the size of the United Kingdom but with only about one-third the  population, just 20 million people.

Hungary and Serbia are to the west, Ukraine and Moldova to the northeast and east, and Bulgaria to the south.

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Riverboats and a floating hotel in the Danube Delta near Tulcea. Photos by Corey Sandler

Its eastern portion, which includes the capital city of Bucharest is relatively flat and easy to traverse.

But running through the mid-section in a rambling “S” are the Carpathian Mountains heading down from western Ukraine and southernmost Poland…and heading west toward Serbia…the Transylvanian Alps.

In August 1914, with the outbreak of World War I, Romania declared neutrality. Two years later in 1916, under pressure from the Allies eespecially France, which was desperate to open a new front), Romania joined with Russia and the Allies, declaring war against the armies of the Central Powers which included Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottomans.

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Tulcea, and a field of rapeseed. The crop is used to produce canola oil for cooking as well as biodiesel fuel, a renewable crop for a renewing nation. Photos by Corey Sandler

As the price for their entry the Romanians demanded recognition of their claim to Transylvania, which had been controlled by Austria-Hungary since the 17th century and under Hungarian rule since the 11th century.

The fighting did not go well, and the Allied front collapsed when the Bolsheviks took Russia out of the war.

Romania, left surrounded by the Central Powers, signed an armistice.

In just a bit more than a year, about 748,000 Romanian civilians and military died in the war.

At the end of World War I in 1918, Romania was larger than it had ever been or would ever be again.

During the Second World War, Romania again tried to remain neutral, but on June 28, 1940, it received an ultimatum from the Soviet Union.

The Soviets were carving out spheres of influence, part of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact signed with Germany in 1939.

Under Nazi and Soviet pressure, the Romanians were forced to retreat from Bessarabia and northern Bukovina.

And then Romania went one step further, joining the Axis powers.

And Romania shrunk further. Southern Dobruja was ceded to Bulgaria, while Hungary received Northern Transylvania as a payback from the Axis.

Then as is now, oil was a major factor in war. Romania was the most important source of oil for Nazi Germany, which brought bombing raids by Allied forces.

In August 1944, with Soviet Russia moving to retake Romania, Romania changed sides and joined the Allies.

King Michael was a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria by both of his parents, and a third cousin of Queen Elizabeth II.

Still alive at age 92, he is one of the last surviving heads of state from World War II, along with the former King Simeon II of Bulgaria.

But Romania’s role in the defeat of Nazi Germany was not recognized at the Paris Peace Conference of 1947; even though the Romanian Army had suffered 170,000 casualties after switching sides.

And now Romania was held by the Soviets.

In 1947, King Michael I was forced to abdicate and leave the country, and Romania was proclaimed a people’s republic.

Romania remained under military occupation and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s.

During this period, Romania’s vast natural resources were drained by the Soviet Union. Private firms were nationalized, and agriculture collectivized.

The Communist government established a reign of terror, carried out mainly through the Securitate secret police.

Many “enemies of the state” were killed, deported, or sent to forced labor camps and prisons.

Records show hundreds of thousands of instances of torture or murder by the state.

In 1965 Nicolae Ceaușescu came to power and started to pursue a path somewhat independent of the Soviets.

Ceauşescu’s small separation from the Soviet Union drew the interest of Western powers. They saw him as an anti-Soviet maverick, or at least a pawn that could be played to widen a schism in the Warsaw Pact.

Romania received massive loans from the West—more than $13 billion—to finance economic development.

Ceauşescu ordered the export of much of Romania’s agriculture and industrial production to repay its debts. Food rationing was introduced and gas and electricity black-outs were common.

Ceauşescu shut down all radio stations outside of the capital, and limited television to one channel broadcasting two hours a day.

He enveloped himself in a cult of personality: Ceausescu was Romania, and the other way around.

By some accounts, in his final years Romania was the most Stalinist regime in the Soviet bloc.

In late 1989, demonstrations broke out.

Ceauşescu went on a state visit to Iran—another paradigm of democracy at the time—and left the job of crushing the revolt to his wife and cronies.

When he returned, he blamed the problem on foreign interference.

Ceauşescu and his wife Elena fled the capital by helicopter, but were eventually arrested by the army. On Christmas Day 1989, they were put on trial on charges ranging from illegal gathering of wealth to genocide.

The trial lasted all of two hours. They were found guilty and immediately sentenced to death, taken outside the building and put up against a wall.

With the fall of the Iron Curtain and the 1989 Revolution, Romania began its transition towards democracy and a capitalist market economy, a process that has been somewhat successful.

Romania joined NATO in 2004, and the European Union in 2007.

And today, though Romania is better off than when Ceauşescu was in power, it still remains desperately poor in many regions.

We wish Romania (and its neighbor Ukraine) well. And to our guests: arrivederci. Till we meet again.

All photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. All rights reserved. If you would like to purchase a copy, please contact me.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Now available, the revised Second Edition of “Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession” by Corey Sandler, for the Amazon Kindle. You can read the book on a Kindle device, or in a Kindle App on your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Here’s where to order a copy for immediate delivery:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00IA9QTBM

Henry Hudson Dreams cover

Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession: The Tragic Legacy of the New World’s Least Understood Explorer  (Kindle Edition)

 

2 May 2014: Odessa, Ukraine

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

We slipped into Odessa under cover of darkness and woke to a glorious day in one of the most handsome cities of Europe.

And at the close of the day, we sailed out of port with all guests and crew accounted for.[whohit]-Odessa 2May-[/whohit]

In between: some of us witnessed what may be the beginning of the end of peace–and independence–in this huge tinderbox nation. Riots broke out between pro-Russia and pro-Ukraine factions: from rocks to firebombs to assaults on a government building and deaths.

We had previously canceled our scheduled port calls to Yalta and Sevastopol in Crimea; there was not much debate about the need to do that once the southernmost portion of Ukraine came fully under control of Russia. But Odessa seemed secure, a place with a significant history of many cultures living together and creating art and music and society.

But Vladimir Putin’s Russia has found ways to stoke the nasty fires of separatism, especially in places where Ukraine has been heavily Russified over the past century: the eastern portion of the country is predominately populated by ethnic Russians who were brought there by the Czars and then the Soviet Union.

On the day we arrived in Odessa, a football match was scheduled between a local team and one from the eastern part of Ukraine near Russia. The morning started with parades of football supporters. Somewhere in that mix, it appears, were some bent on provocation and violence and by the end of the day Odessa was fully in the mix.

Competing marches of pro-Ukrainian and pro-Russian football supporters became marches of pro-Ukraine and pro-Russia activists and eventually violence and death.

We wish beautiful Odessa and the people of Ukraine the best. We hope to return to a free, safe, and happy country again.

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A pro-Ukrainian demonstration in the morning, and a bandura performer in the park. Photos by Corey Sandler

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Inside some of the mansions of the beautiful city of Odessa. Photos by Corey Sandler

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Church of the Assumption in Odessa, a place of solitude and grace in a time of near-war. Photos by Corey Sandler

30 April 2014: Sochi, Russia

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Remember The Olympic Games?

Sochi was a place little known outside of Russia until just months ago.

Vladimir Putin, the Russian government, and some of the companies and institutions under his thumb spent something on the order of $60 billion to create a show demonstrating the emergence of a “new Russia.”[whohit]-Sochi 30Apr-[/whohit]

And then just days after the Olympics came to a successful conclusion, Putin demonstrated a return to what many consider the “old Russia.”

And so today, while the world’s attention is riveted on the events in Crimea and The Ukraine, in Sochi the people are left to wonder, “what’s next?”

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The Maritime Terminal of Sochi and the historic Cathedral of Saint Michael, the first a vestige of Soviet times and the second one of the few remnants of the Czars. Saint Michaels was completed in 1890, left neglected during the Soviet Era and restored in 1993. Photos by Corey Sandler

When Sochi took the world spotlight in February, it put on display a place very much symbolic of the enigma that was Russia, then the Soviet Union, and now the Russian Federation.

Putin spent a huge amount of money on a project that may never turn a profit, but that word—even in modern Russia—does not always enter discussions.

But before Putin, another Russian ruler made his mark on Sochi.

The Winter Games might not have come to Sochi were it not for Joseph Stalin. From 1937 until his death 16 years later, Stalin came down from Moscow to the Black Sea for rest and recuperation and the other things he did as ruler.

And with Stalin came others in the Communist political elite.

Vladimir Putin has his own presidential residence not far from where Stalin stayed.

Putin came for the waters, and what was at first a rather primitive ski resort.

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The stadium built for the opening and closing ceremonies of the Sochi Olympics. It was located in Adler, about 20 miles south of Sochi. Today, like much of the sites, it stands empty, in search of a new use. Photo by Corey Sandler

Sochi, is the unofficial “Summer Capital” of Russia.

Home to about 415,000 people, it is one of the southernmost parts of the country, about 1,600 kilometers or 1,000 miles south of Moscow.

Russia is a wintry country. It’s hard to find a place where there isn’t snow and winter sports in January and February.

But Vladimir Putin, who does often play by his own rules, chose Sochi.

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Up in the mountains about 40 minutes above Sochi is Krasnaya Polyana and the Rosa Khutor ski areas. It is a spectacular site, and the snow cover in late April was still there although that is not a certainty every year. Photos by Corey Sandler

As Czarist and then Soviet Russia began to use Sochi as a summer resort, the city built attractions like the Arboretum and Riviera Park. Intensive resort construction began in the 1920s. During World War II, most of the city was given over to rehabilitation hospitals for wounded soldiers.

While coastal Sochi was developed, up in the Caucasus Mountains, Krasnaya Polyana was mostly left alone. But after the fall of the Soviet Union, some locals developed a small and very rough ski area. Pure capitalism and sweat equity.

Things began to change in 2000, when new president Vladimir Putin tried it out. He returned many times.

In July 2007, Putin went to Guatemala City to speak—in English, something he does not do often in public—to the International Olympic Committee.

In 2008, the Gazprom oil company bought the ski area. According to some, this was not a friendly takeover.

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The ski jump hill at the mountain cluster and the Rosa Khutor Olympic Village. Photos by Corey Sandler

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A branch of the American embassy at the Olympic site. Want to supersize those fries? Photos by Corey Sandler

Depending on how you choose to look at it, the 2014 Winter Olympic were one or more of the following: Vladimir Putin’s extravagant personal party and financial bonanza for his closest buddies, a sincere effort to regenerate the economy of the Russian Black Sea Coast, a signal that Czar Putin is on the throne, restoring Russia to its former greatness. At least until the bills come due.

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Gazprom, the Russian Oil monopoly about 50 percent owned by the state, developed much of the mountain cluster for the Sochi Olympics. They also built the huge Gazprom Galaktika Center as a reception area for VIPs and guests. Two months after the Olympics it stands mostly empty; we toured theaters and halls and displays about the Russian Space program completely unmolested by other visitors. Photos by Corey Sandler

But in the end, as Putin has demonstrated in Crimea, he does not really care much about what the outside world thinks of him: only those within the (expanded) Russian borders.

All photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. All rights reserved. If you would like to purchase a copy, please contact me.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Now available, the revised Second Edition of “Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession” by Corey Sandler, for the Amazon Kindle. You can read the book on a Kindle device, or in a Kindle App on your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Here’s where to order a copy for immediate delivery:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00IA9QTBM

Henry Hudson Dreams cover

Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession: The Tragic Legacy of the New World’s Least Understood Explorer  (Kindle Edition)

 

 

29 April 2014: Batumi

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Dear readers: an update on our visit to Batumi.

Although guests who booked this cruise thought we were going to be making a call in the Republic of Georgia, I am sorry to tell you that is not correct.[whohit]-Batumi 29Apr-[/whohit]

We actually arrived in the Autonomous Republic of Adjara.

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Old Batumi includes an impressive–and gaudy theater, set on a grand square with a gilded statue. Photos by Corey Sandler

Batumi is the regional capital of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara.

So it’s not Georgia?

No, except when it is Georgia.

The Autonomous Republic of Adjara is an autonomous Republic of Georgia.

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Scenes of Batumi. Photos by Corey Sandler

Adjara has its own constitution, and its own Parliament.

Adjara is in southwestern Georgia, extending from the Black Sea to the wooded foothills and mountains of the Lesser Caucasus. The highest mountains rise more than 3,000 meters (9,840 feet) above sea level.

The ancient Greek colony of Colchis had a settlement called Bathus, from the Greek phrase bathus limen meaning “deep harbor.”

Under Hadrian, it was converted into a fortified Roman port. Roman-Byzantine forces held it for most of the next eight centuries.

At the end of the 10th century, Batumi came under the unified kingdom of Georgia.

In the 15th century, the Ottoman Turks briefly conquered the town. The Ottomans returned and took the region in 1614.

Under the Ottomans most of the people of Adjara converted to Islam. And then in 1878, the Ottomans were forced to cede Adjara to the expanding Russian Empire, part of Russia’s push into the eastern end of the Black Sea.

Russia installed a railway in 1900 from Batumi to Tilibilisi and on to Baku, the capital and port city of Azerbaijan on the Caspian Sea.

Soon afterwards, an oil pipeline was completed from Baku to Batumi. Oil and politics and lots of money; little has changed in the past century.

As Russia fell apart during its Civil War, Adjara was occupied by Turkish and British troops from 1918 to 1920.

In 1921, the Turkish government ceded Adjara to the newborn Democratic Republic of Georgia on condition that autonomy be guaranteed for its Muslim population.

And then under the rising Soviet Union came the establishment of the Adjar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

For the next 70 years, it was an autonomous part of the autonomous Republic of Georgia, which was in turn a puppet state of the Soviet Union with only limited autonomy.

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Gonio Fortress near Batumi. Photos by Corey Sandler

Gonio-Apsaros Fortress is about 15 kilometers or 10 miles south of Batumi, very close to the border with Turkey. The settlement of Gonio was a fortified Roman city within Colchis, dating from the 1st century or earlier.

The walls are younger, dating from the Byzantine era, and the parapets or merlons were added during Turkish occupation.

Modern Adjara has encouraged foreign investment. Batumi has a coastline punctuated with modern tall buildings:

Skyscraper City, some call it.

Kazakh investors reportedly invested $100 million to purchase more than 20 hotels in Adjara. Other money comes from the Middle East.

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They love extravagant, unusual, sometimes gaudy, and often downright odd architecture in modern Batumi. Think of Las Vegas and Disneyworld, without the high culture. And yes, that is a Ferris wheel of sorts, built into the side of a technical institute along the seafront. Photos by Corey Sandler

For an outsider, the easiest thing about the Georgian language is its name: Kartuli. Other than that, speaking for myself at least, all is lost.

Their alphabet looks to me like a mashup of Farsi, Sanskrit, and an explosion at a noodle factory.

The Georgian language is not related to any major language.

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The Alphabet Tower celebrates the abstruse Georgian alphabet. Photo by Corey Sandler

All photos and text copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a copy of a photo, please contact me.

 

28 April 2014: Trabzon, Turkey

Finding Trabzon

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Trabzon has been a major trading port for millennia. Modern Trabzon has a population of more than 230,000 in the city.[whohit]-Trabzon 28Apr-[/whohit]

The Republic of Genoa had an important merchant colony within the city that was similar to Galata near Constantinople (north across the Golden Horn) in present-day Istanbul. Trabzon formed the basis of several states in its long history and was the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond between 1204 and 1461.

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The astounding Sumela Monastery, completed in 386, was somehow carved into the cliffside about 1,200 meters or 3,900 feet above sea level in the Pontic Mountains near Trabzon. We don’t know much about how they were built, and even today it is a difficult task to get to them: car or coach for an hour into the hills, transfer to a small dolmus minivan up a switchback road, and then hike up a path better suited for goats than people. Photos by Corey Sandler

During the late Ottoman period, the city became an important Christian center. One of the former treasures of the region is the Trebizond Gospel, a Byzantine illuminated manuscript with the text of Gospel Lectionary, dating from the 11th century and 10th century.

The book was richly decorated with gold and jewels by the Trapezuntine Emperor Andronicus. In 1858, the Trebizond Gospel was presented by the Orthodox Metropolitan of Trebizond to the Emperor Alexander II of Russia, who donated it to the Russian National Library, where is held to the present day. Good luck getting it back.

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Some of the ancient frescoes at Sumela. Photos by Corey Sandler

As Turkey has developed, Trabzon has grown with it.

The coastal highway and a new harbor increased commercial relations with Central Anatolia and the outside world. Nevertheless, Trabzon is by no means as developed or Westernized as Istanbul or port cities like Kusadasi on the Aegean.

The current ethnic background of the people of Trabzon is mostly Turkish. There is still a small community of Greek or Pontic-speaking Muslims and some Armenians.

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The Agia Sophia Church was built in the 13th century, converted to a mosque during the Ottoman Era in the 16th century, made a museum in modern Turkey in 1957, and returned to its role as a mosque about a year ago. Its Christian icons and frescoes are covered by curtains during Islamic prayer times. Photos by Corey Sandler

Since the end of the Soviet Union, there has been immigration from Russia, Ukraine, and the Caucasus—mostly Georgia.

Some of the original people of the region, the Laz, are also found in Trabzon and in small villages outside of the city. The Laz are descendants of one of the chief tribes of ancient kingdom of Colchis.

They were initially early adopters of Christianity in the region.

However, most of them converted to Sunni Islam during Ottoman rule in the 16th century.

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The Ortahisar Buyuk Fatih Mosque in Trabzon dates from 1316, although its earliest use was as a Christian church used for the coronation of Byzantine Emperors. Photo by Corey Sandler

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In Trabzon, on a hilltop overlooking the harbor, is a much-loved ornate home known as the Attaturk Country House. Turks come on pilgrimage, some making multiple visits, which is more than Attaturk did: he stayed only two nights.

All photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a copy, please contact me.

 

27 April 2014: Sinope, Turkey

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Anatolia, which the Greeks called Asia Minor—is the westernmost protrusion of Asia. Modern Turkey, famed for spanning Europe and Asia at Istanbul, has the majority of its territory in Anatolia.One theory is the Black and Caspian Seas were vast freshwater lakes until a massive flood about 5600 BC.[whohit]-SINOPE 27Apr-[/whohit]

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Regional elections were conducted recently in Turkey; some of the political flags still fly after the politicians have gone. Photo by Corey Sandler

The flood came from the West: the Mediterranean spilled over a rocky sill at the Bosphorus, creating the strait that now connects the Black and Mediterranean Seas.

Sinope is one of the high holy places of self-interest and cynicism. The town, on the most northern point of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, was the birthplace of Diogenes.

Diogenes was born about 412 B.C. in the Greek colony Sinope, and died at Corinth about 323 B.C.

Diogenes was the man who walked about carrying a lantern in the daytime to help him in “looking for a good man.” He apparently could not find one.

Alexander the Great met the famous philosopher when he was in Corinth and wanted to reward him.

According to the story, Alexander asked, “What can I do for you?”

Diogenes was said to have replied, “Stand aside. You’re blocking my sunlight.”

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Scenes around Sinope, including a bakery where we stopped to pick up a fresh sesame bread right out of the oven. Photos by Corey Sandler

The modern city of Sinope has a population of about 37,000. Used as a port by the Hittites, the city was re-founded as a Greek colony in the 7th century B.C.

Sinope flourished as the Black Sea port of a caravan route that led from the upper Euphrates valley.

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The Archeological Museum of Sinope is like a graduate course in history: Colchis Greek, Roman, Ottoman, and trade objects that reach back to the other end of the Silk Road in Persia. Photos by Corey Sandler

By 1850, the Ottoman Empire was falling apart. Deeply in debt, it relied heavily on British and French loans. And it drastically reduced the size of its Army and Navy.

By 1853, Tsar Nicholas I saw the reductions as an opportunity to press Russian claim in the Trans-Cacasus and along the Danube River.

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A simple but elegant mosque, from about 1361, in Sinope. The design in this part of Anatolia is closer to that of the Middle East, less influenced by European styles as you would see in Istanbul. Photos by Corey Sandler

Today there are many parallels in Crimea and the Ukraine and between Nicholas I and Vladimir Putin. Nicholas I pushed to recapture or expand Russian territory, and in the process brought pushback from European powers.

In July 1853, Russian forces occupied several Ottoman Principalities along the Danube.

In the Black Sea, Sultan Mejd ordered a squadron of frigates, steamers and transports to establish a supply corridor to the Ottoman Army in Georgia.

The Ottoman fleet was met by the onset of winter, and ended up at Sinope.

On November 30, 1853, the Imperial Russian Navy crossed the Black Sea to Sinop, attacked and destroyed the Ottoman fleet in port there.

The Russian bombardment went on long past when it was clear the Ottomans were defeated, killing many Ottoman sailors who were no longer combatants.

The “massacre of Sinope” was one of the events precipitating the Crimean War (1853-1854) in which Great Britain and France joined with the Ottoman Empire against the Russian Empire.

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The monument to the fallen Ottoman sailors in Sinope. Photo by Corey Sandler

All photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a copy, please contact me.

 

24-26 April 2014: Istanbul, Turkey

The Bridge Across Time and Continents

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Istanbul, one of the great cities of the world, is a place where ancient history comes alive.

Across its long history, Istanbul served as the capital of the Roman Empire (330–395), the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine) Empire from 395 to 1204, the Latin Empire (1204–1261), again the Byzantine Empire from 1261 to 1453, and the Ottoman Empire (1453–1922).[whohit]-Istanbul 24-26Apr-[/whohit]

It is the place where East meets West,

Where Asia meets Europe.

Where Islam meets the Judeo-Christian world.

Where ancient culture meets—and sometimes intermingles—with modernity.

Here in Istanbul we wish safe travels to many guests who have been with us since Monte Carlo and before, and welcome new friends who will sail with us through the Bosporus Strait and into the Black Sea.

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Our voyage from Istanbul into the Black Sea. Because of the unrest in Ukraine, we have had to rework our itinerary, removing Yalta and Sevastopol in the Crimea; we have added Sinop in Turkey.

Istanbul is on the European side of Turkey, straddling the Golden Horn and fronting the Bosporus Strait that runs from the Sea of Marmara to the Black Sea.

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The 6th century cisterns of Istanbul, near the Blue Mosque and the 5th century Valens Aqueduct built by the Romans. Photo by Corey Sandler

Kapalıçarşı, the Grand Bazaar, is one of the largest and oldest covered markets in the world, encompassing more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. As many as half a million people visit daily.

It opened in 1461.

Three decades before Columbus.

Nearby is the smaller but very colorful and flavorful Spice Market, at the western side of the Galata Bridge.

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Scenes from in and around the Spice Market and across the Golden Horn along Istaklal Avenue near Taksim Square. Photos by Corey Sandler

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, the Sultanahmet, is known to the outside world as the Blue Mosque, named for the colorful tiles within. It was completed in 1616.

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Inside the Blue Mosque. Photos by Corey Sandler

The Blue Mosque melds two centuries of Ottoman mosque and Byzantine church building. Only the sultan was allowed to enter the court of the mosque on horseback.

On the western side, a heavy iron chain spans the entrance, so that even the sultan had to lower his head in religious acknowledgment.

Within, the walls and columns are lined with more than 20,000 handmade ceramic tiles in more than 50 designs. Those at lower levels are traditional in design, while at gallery level they become flamboyant with representations of flowers, fruit, and cypresses.

Süleymaniye is Istanbul’s second largest mosque. It is actually a bit older than the Blue Mosque, completed in 1558.

Again, it combines Islamic and Byzantine architecture. The design of the Süleymaniye also plays on Suleyman’s representation of himself as a ‘second Solomon.’ It references the Dome of the Rock, which was built on the site of the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem.

Here are some scenes of Süleymaniye. All photos by Corey Sandler, all rights reserved.

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Topkapı Palace was the primary residence of the Ottoman Sultans from 1465 to 1856. The name means “Cannon gate Palace”.

Construction began in 1459. The palace complex consists of four main courtyards and many smaller buildings. At its peak, the palace was home to as many as 4,000 people.

The palace functioned almost as a city within a city, encompassing dormitories, gardens, libraries, schools, and mosques.

Within the palace, the sultan and his family could enjoy privacy, making use of secret passageways and grilled windows.

After the end of the Ottoman Empire in 1921, Topkapı Palace was transformed into a museum of the imperial era. Only the most significant of the hundreds of rooms are open to the public today.

Hagia Sophia began as an Orthodox Christian basilica, converted to a mosque, and now a museum.

The Emperor Justinian had materials brought from all over the empire: Hellenistic columns from the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, large porphyry stones from quarries in Egypt, green marble from Thessaly, black stone from the Bosporus region, and yellow stone from Syria.

Hagia Sophia’s massive dome is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture.

It was the largest cathedral in the world for nearly a thousand years, until the Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520.

The Greek name for the original cathedral was “Church of the Holy Wisdom of God.” From its dedication in 360 until 1453, it served as the Greek Patriarchal cathedral of Constantinople, except for the period between 1204 and 1261 when it was a Roman Catholic cathedral in the Latin Empire.

And then under the Ottomans, the cathedral was made a mosque in 1453, a role it continued until 1931.

In 1935, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and first President, determined to separate Islam from politics, transformed Hagia Sofia into a museum.

The Istanbul Archaeology Museums has three collections in the Eminönü district, near Topkapı Palace: The Archaeological Museum, the Museum of the Ancient Orient, and the Museum of Islamic Art.

One of the great sights of Istanbul is relatively young, Dolmabahçe Palace. This was the last of the Ottoman Palaces, heavily influence by European designs and customs in the mid-19th century.

Here is an album of photos from inside and outside of Dolmabahçe. Photos by Corey Sandler

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All photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a copy, please contact me.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Now available, the revised Second Edition of “Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession” by Corey Sandler, for the Amazon Kindle. You can read the book on a Kindle device, or in a Kindle App on your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Here’s where to order a copy for immediate delivery:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00IA9QTBM

Henry Hudson Dreams cover

Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession: The Tragic Legacy of the New World’s Least Understood Explorer  (Kindle Edition)

 

23 April 2014: Kusadasi and Ephesus, Turkey

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Kusadasi is a place that has been bystander to history for eons.

It has seen the likes of Alexander the Great, Croesus, King Midas, and thousands of travelers and merchants who came to the city on the ancient Silk Road that reached back to Persia and the Middle East.[whohit]-Kusadasi 23Apr-[/whohit]

And a short distance away is the spectacular city of Ephesus, once a great Greek and then Roman city with a population of several hundred thousand and then one of the most important early cities of Christendom.

Today, the invaders arrive by cruise ship and airliner.

Here’s an album of photos from Ephesus and nearby sites.

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The Library of Celsus, the Greek theater and other sites at Ephesus. Photos by Corey Sandler.

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The Basilica of Saint John near Ephesus. Photos by Corey Sandler

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Storks atop a former minaret, a street scene in Selcuk. Photos by Corey Sandler

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Bonjuks to ward off the evil eye, and an honest merchant’s stall near Ephesus. Photos by Corey Sandler

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The ancient Isa Bey mosque. In a row in Selcuk is the pagan Temple of Artemis, the Christian Basilica of Saint John, and this Muslim mosque designed by an architect from Damascus. Photos by Corey Sandler

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The Temple of Claros, an unreconstructed site once home to an oracle. Photos by Corey Sandler

22 April 2014: Santorini, Greece

A Legend of Fire and Water

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Santorini is a picture-postcard Greek Island, one of the more spectacular sights in the Aegean, a half-circle of steep cliffs topped with two horizontal towns of white and blue.

Oh, and one more thing: It’s a picture-perfect Greek island that also sits atop a ticking time bomb. The cliffs are actually the rim of a huge volcano.[whohit]-Santorini 22Apr-[/whohit]

A huge dormant—not dead, just sleeping—volcano.

Santorini and a few surrounding fragments are essentially the remains of an enormous volcanic explosion that destroyed the earliest settlements on a single island.

The homeland of the Minoan culture was on the island of Crete, and the famed palace complex of Knossos is one of the wonders of the Aegean.

This Bronze Age civilization thrived between 3000 to 2000 BC, and reached its peak in the period 2000 to 1580 BC.

What happened about 1500 BC? The big boom on Thera; the volcano on Santorini.

Excavations begun in 1967 on Santorini have established its importance as one of the outlying centers of the Minoan culture.

A SANTORINI ALBUM. All photos by Corey Sandler, all rights reserved.

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SCENES OF AKROTIRI ON SANTORINI. All photos by Corey Sandler, all rights reserved.

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– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Now available, the revised Second Edition of “Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession” by Corey Sandler, for the Amazon Kindle. You can read the book on a Kindle device, or in a Kindle App on your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

Here’s where to order a copy for immediate delivery:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00IA9QTBM

Henry Hudson Dreams cover

Henry Hudson Dreams and Obsession: The Tragic Legacy of the New World’s Least Understood Explorer  (Kindle Edition)

 

 

20 April 2014: Valletta, Malta

Easter Sunday on the Crossroads of the Med

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

The two-and-a-half island nation of Malta is not quite like anywhere else. Especially on Easter Sunday.[whohit]-Valletta 20Apr-[/whohit]

Once I figured out we would be visiting the island nation on Easter, I knew exactly what we would be doing: a pilgrimage to Vittorioso to see the parade and procession. More about that a bit later.

Malta is pretty much right in the middle of the Mediterranean. 93 kilometers or 55 miles south of Sicily and Europe, 288 kilometers or 180 miles north of Tunisia and Africa. East of Gibraltar, and west of Alexandria and Jerusalem.

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Our sister ship Silver Cloud at the dock in Valletta on a previous visit. Photo by Corey Sandler

And, of course, that location made it so very important as a crossroads and rest stop for invaders, crusaders, pilgrims, and traders.

It is heavily Catholic and has a long tradition of Christianity, and yet it was greatly influenced by the Middle East and the British Empire.

They also speak (along with English) a language of their own: Maltese.

The Republic of Malta covers just 300 square kilometers, 116 square miles. It is one of the smallest and most-densely populated countries in Europe.

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The major cathedrals in Valletta and Mdina are among the most spectacular in Europe. They hold fabulous art, much of it imported (along with the artists) by the Knights of Malta who held the island during the Crusades. Photos by Corey Sandler

Malta is actually about twenty islands, islets, and rocks. Only three are inhabited: the principal island of Malta, and the secondary island of Gozo.

In between them is the tiny isle of Comino (Kemmuna): just over one square mile and home at last count to less than a dozen people.

Over the centuries, Malta has been ruled by Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt, Sicilians, the Knights of St John, the French and the British.

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Doorways and balconies in Valletta, above, and Mostar below. Photos by Corey Sandler

The last colonial power was the British, and for that the Maltese suffered greatly, and stood up bravely, during World War II as the Axis powers pummeled Valletta.

Malta has a long Christian legacy and, depending on who is making the call, it can claim to be—with Rome—an Apostolic See. That term is applied to a church or a community founded directly by one of the Apostles.

The fine print is that there were some gaps in the leadership and ownership of Malta over the past two thousand years.

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A mysterious alleyway in the Alice-in-Wonderland town of Mdina. Photo by Corey Sandler

But in any case, according to the Acts of the Apostles, Saint Paul was shipwrecked and ministered on the island.

Along with its Christian sites, several Megalithic Temples may be the oldest free-standing structures in Europe.

According to Catholic belief, Christianity arrived in 60 A.D., in the personal hands of the Apostle Paul who—according to a detailed account in the Acts of the Apostles—was being taken by ship to Rome under arrest for a religious infringement.

Paul had asked to be judged before Caesar, his right as a Roman Citizen. Another prisoner on the same ship was Saint Luke, who made his own record of the voyage.

The vessel wrecked just off Malta.

According to the accounts, the men who washed ashore were taken to the villa of Publius, a leader on the island. Paul cured Publius’ father of a fever, and that was sufficient to convince Publius to convert to Christianity.

Malta went from the Romans to the Byzantines who ruled from Constantinople for four centuries, which brings us up to the year 870.

Next up were Arabs and Moslems, who took control of Malta as part of the Emirate of Sicily, and later the Caliphate of the Fatamids in 909.

The Arabs advanced the island’s irrigation and farming, and also brought the Siculo-Arabic language which would eventually become Maltese.

Maltese is a Semitic language using 30 characters based on the Latin alphabet.

The Muslims allowed Christians to continue to practice their religion, although they had to pay a tax as a sign of subjugation.

Today, Malta is among the most Catholic nations on the planet. There are something like 360 churches. And on Easter Sunday, well, they sure know how to celebrate.

We were early off the ship and traveled with some friends to the town of Vittorioso, on the less-visited other side of the harbor from Valletta. There were thousands and people there to see the marching bands, procession, and a most unusual race.

What was quite lacking, thankfully, were very many other tourists. Here’s a bit of what we saw.

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High Mass was celebrated at the Saint Lawrence Church in Vittorioso, which dates from about 1660. It was used for just a few decades by the Knights of Malta before they relocated across the harbor to Valletta. It has to be one of most impressive parish churches anywhere. Photos by Corey Sandler

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After the services, a marching band proceeded through the crowded square, followed–at first by a solemn procession of men and boys holding aloft a statue from the church. Photos by Corey Sandler

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And then the race was on, as the bearers ran up the hill from the church to the central square of the Three Cities of Malta, where processions from other towns met them. After catching their breath, the bands and the bearers returned to their home churches. Photos by Corey Sandler

All photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a copy, please contact me.

 

 

 

19 April 2014: Messina, Taormina, Etna

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Early Saturday morning we sailed south from Sorrento through the Tyrrhenian Sea into the funnel-shaped Strait of Messina.[whohit]-Messina 19Apr-[/whohit]

On our left was the bottom of the mainland of Italy. To our right was the large island of Sicily, the football being kicked by the toe of Italy’s boot.

At the northern entrance to the strait, the passage narrows to less than two miles, or three kilometers.

At its exit to the south, the strait is nearly 10 miles of 16 kilometers wide.

Almost anywhere the sea funnels into a strait, mariners expect strong and sometime treacherous currents.

That’s only one problem.

The Eurasian plate is moving down—south, if you will—toward the African plate. And one of the hotspots, where the plates grind against each other, is southern Italy.

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Mount Etna, letting off a bit of steam, as seen from the hilltop village of Taormina. Photo by Corey Sandler

And so we have Mount Etna: the tallest active volcano in Europe, nearly constantly bubbling over like a bowl of Arrabiata sauce left on the burner.

We docked in the once-handsome classic Sicilian city of Messina.

I say Messina was once-handsome.

In 1783, an earthquake devastated much of the city, and it took decades to rebuild and rekindle cultural life.

On December 28, 1908 Messina was all but leveled by a terrible earthquake that killed between 80 and 100 thousand people.

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Scenes of classic and ancient Messina. Most of the city was severely damaged in the earthquake of 1908 and World War II bombing, but has been lovingly rebuilt. Photos by Corey Sandler

And then during World War II Messina was subject to massive aerial bombardment by Allied forces.

So, between the earthquakes and the wartime bombing, what you see in Messina today is almost entirely rebuilt.

Oh and one other thing: on our way into the Strait, we sailed between Scylla and Charybdis.

A quick reminder from Greek mythology:

Charybdis was a horrific sea monster whose face was all mouth. (Sounds like an entire class of politicians to me.)

Apparently she ran afoul of Zeus, who turned her into a creature who swallows a huge amount of water three times a day and then belches it out again: a treacherous whirlpool.

Scylla is described as a creature with four eyes, six long necks each topped by grisly heads filled somehow with three rows of sharp teeth.

Oh, and twelve tentacles and a cat’s tail.

Yes, I think I’ve met her type as well.

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The Orion Fountain, near the Duomo of Messina. Photos by Corey Sandler

Near Mount Etna, today it is Taormina that is the jewel of the region, a lovely little town with a spectacular Greek Theater and an even-more spectacular view of the volcano.

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The church at Tindari, home of the Black Madonna. Photo by Corey Sandler

17-18 April 2014: Naples, Sorrento, Capri, and Pompeii

The Caves, the Road, and the Elephant in the Room

By Corey Sandler, Destination Consultant Silversea Cruises

Sorrento is a gem of one of the most beautiful, dramatic, and dangerous regions in all of coastal Italy: Campania. On the mainland, it stretches from the Amalfi Coast and then Sorrento north to Naples. In between are Pompeii and Herculaneum.

And from almost everywhere you can see the hulking threat of Mount Vesuvius: one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world.[whohit]-Naples 17Apr-[/whohit]

As we sailed toward our planned anchorage at Sorrento, the Master of our ship read the tea leaves (and the meteorological charts) and decided to change our itinerary so that we could avoid possibly rough seas at Sorrento. Instead, we docked at Naples.

The wide Gulf of Naples is framed by three major islands: the most famous is Capri just west of Sorrento. West of Naples is Procida and further out Ischia.

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The best real estate value in Amalfi: a miniature village at the top end of town. Photo by Corey Sandler

Capri has been a resort since Roman times. Actually the Greeks were there earlier, and are believed to have given the island the name Kapros, meaning wild boar.

Natural wonders include limestone masses called Sea Stacks (Faraglioni) and the famed Blue Grotto.

Now, let’s consider the mainland of Campania: Sorrento, the Amalfi Coast, Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Naples.

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Positano from above, midway through our drive of two thousand turns from Sorrento. (I counted them.) Photo by Corey Sandler

Positano was a relatively poor fishing village during the first half of the 20th century. It began to attract large numbers of tourists in the 1950s.

John Steinbeck may have helped.

In an essay in Harper’s Bazaar, Steinbeck wrote: “Positano bites deep. It is a dream place that isn’t quite real when you are there and becomes beckoningly real after you have gone.”

Positano was featured in the film, “Under the Tuscan Sun” in 2003. Mick Jagger and Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones somehow used the solace of the cafés of Positano to write the song “Midnight Rambler.”

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Huge lemons of the Amalfi Coast. Granita (real Italian ice) for lunch, Limoncello after dinner. Photo by Corey Sandler

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Fruits for passion? Red peppers at a roadside stand along the Amalfi Coast. Photo by Corey Sandler

Naples was founded in the 8th century BC, as a Greek colony, first called Parthenope and later Neápolis (New City). Neápolis became Naples.

The city was at its peak as the capital of the Kingdom of Naples, from 1282 until Italian unification in 1816.

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Inside the spectacular Naples Cathedral (parts dating from the 13th century), and the shadow of the church on the street outside. Photos by Corey Sandler

By the 1st century, Pompeii was one of a number of towns located around the base of Vesuvius. The area had a substantial population which grew prosperous farming the rich volcanic soil.

The 79 eruption, which is thought to have lasted about 19 hours, released about 1 cubic mile (4 cubic kilometers) of ash and rock over a wide area to the south and south-east of the crater, with about 10 feet (3 meters) falling on Pompeii.

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More treasures of Herculaneum at the Archeological Museum. Photo by Corey Sandler

It is not known how many people were killed, but the remains of about 1,150 bodies–or casts made of their impressions in the ash deposits–have been recovered in and around Pompeii. The total number could be between 10,000 and 25,000.

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The greatest treasures of Pompeii and Herculaneum are on display not at the ancient cities, but instead safely and handsomely displayed at the Naples National Archeological Museum. Photos by Corey Sandler

Most of those killed at Pompeii died from a combination of blast and debris, and suffocation through ash inhalation. About a third were found inside buildings, probably killed by the collapse of roofs.

By contrast, Herculaneum, which was much closer to the crater, was saved from tephra falls by the wind direction, but was buried under 75 feet (23 meters) of hot material deposited by pyroclastic surges.

The last major eruption took place in March 1944, in one of the almost-forgotten moments of World War II.

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Scenes of the town of Amalfi. It’s not easy, but it is possible to find back alleys free of tourist throngs. Photos by Corey Sandler

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All photos copyright 2014 by Corey Sandler. If you would like to purchase a copy, please contact me.